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History of the development of rolling stock

History of the development of rolling stock

Electric locomotive VL10 (Vladimir Lenin)Electric locomotive VL10 (Vladimir Lenin) (original designation - T8 - Tbilisi 8-axle) - the main trunk lines for freight locomotive DC railways of the Soviet Union, manufactured Tbilisi (from 1961 to 1976.) And Novocherkassk (1969 to 1976) Electric Locomotive Plant. Development of technical documentation on the locomotive VL10 was performed team of designers TEVZ under the leadership of GI Chirakadze. Mechanical parts for all locomotives produced NEVZ.

In accordance with the task MPS 1976 TEVZ (with electric locomotive number 101) and NEVZ (with number 001) to replace electric locomotives VL10 produced VL10U (weighted).

Were built in 1904 and electric type VL10 979 electric type VL10U.

Technical parameters:

  • Axial formula: 2 (20 - 20).
  • Power on the shafts of the traction motors, kW:
    • In watch mode: 5360.
    • In continuous operation: 4600.
  • Tractive force, kN:
    • In watch mode: 387.
    • In continuous operation: 314.
  • Speed, km/h:
  • Structural: 100.
    • In watch mode: 48.7.
    • In continuous operation: 51.2.
  • Weight with 2/3 sand stock, ie: 184.
  • Height of the coupling from the railhead at new bandages, mm: 1040-1080.
  • The diameter of the wheel rolling circle with new bandages, mm: 1250.
  • The smallest radius curves traversed at a speed 10 km/h, m: 125.
  • The height from the rail head to the working surface of the susceptor runner, mm:
    • In the lowered position: 5120.
    • In working: 5500-7000.
  • The length of the electric coupler axis, mm: 32880.
  • The gear ratio of the gear: 88/23.
  • Body width, mm: 3160.


Electric locomotive VL10Electric locomotive VL10 was created using part of the electrical locomotives series VL8 on the mechanical part is unified with the electric locomotives VL80, subsequently served as the basis for electric locomotives VL11 and VL12 experienced.

Designed in 1952 by a series of electric VL8 the beginning of the 1960s did not meet the increasing demands of USSR railways. These locomotives have little power to 525 kW, heavy alloy trolley, hard spring suspension and excessively noisy due to the location of a failed auxiliary machines cab.

The terms of reference for the design of a new locomotive was prepared by MMS, in February 1960. Technical project locomotive was designed by designers Special Design Bureau TEVZ. At the end of June 1960 the finished project has already been considered in the MMS. Release of the first electric locomotive was timed to the 40th anniversary of the establishment of Soviet power in Georgia. The first locomotive, released in 1961, was named T8-001.

The locomotive consists of two four-sections. On the body and identified with the electric carts VL80S. The body of each section of electric locomotive based on two-axle truck. The first locomotive and a small initial batch of electric locomotives VL10 had significant differences from the series. In the first electric locomotive body of each section is based on two-axle truck in four outriggers ball type.

In the back of each section set different equipment, electrical products and electrical machinery. Body frame serves to transmit traction and braking forces. At the ends of the body, from the driver's cabin were installed SA3 coupler, and the sections are connected to each other by the type of coupling constant coupling locomotive TE2.

The spring suspension is the total static deflection of 111 mm, including 63 mm on the coil springs and the side supports 48 mm cylindrical springs spring bogies. Tractive force is transmitted to the truck frame to the body through the pivot nodes. Axle box trucks have roller bearings. Tractive and braking force to the bogie frame is transmitted through leashes with rubber-metal block (similar to the design applied to the electric locomotives VL60). To reduce vibrations and vibrations of the body between the Bucs and frames trolleys were installed friction dampers, between frames and trolleys body - hydraulic dampers. The locomotive has also been found protivorazgruzochnoe device to prevent discharge of the first while moving wheelsets.

Traction engines (TED) TL-2 power of 650 kW (in hour mode) each have a support-axial suspension. TED is made with six main and six additional poles. TED skeleton, bearing shield, armature shaft, small gear, brush machine were made uniform with TED NB-412M locomotive VL60.

The power circuitry is very close to the circuit VL8. There are three connections of traction motors:

  • serial (P - 8 all traction motors are connected in series, the voltage at the terminals of TED 375);
  • series-parallel (SP - TED connected in two parallel chains of four in each TED, TED terminal voltage 750 V);
  • parallel (P - TED connected in four chains, two TED series, the voltage at the terminals of the TED 1500).

Running (with fully derived starting rheostat) position: 16th (C), 27th (SP) and the 37th (P).

To ensure contact with the current collector the network uses two pantograph-type pantograph 5M1 T (n-5) located at the ends of each section.

Inside the section is divided into three sections - at the beginning of the section is a cabin in the middle of the high-voltage chamber (IHC), fenced off from the aisles mesh fences, pneumatically lockable in the closed position when picked susceptor (with unclosed curtains collectors do not rise) in the tail - the engine room. In the high-voltage chamber is practically all switching and protective equipment section - Rev. RK and brake switch TC switch pg-6, the switching section traction motors with series-parallel (series-parallel, SP) connections on the parallel (P), linear, rheostat, shunt and high-speed contactors, relays and differential Locomotive wheelslip, and other devices.

There are differences between the high-voltage chambers of the first and second sections. Of the main: in the first section of the IHC posted speed switch BV-1, protects traction motors, and switch pg-4, a switching section with serial (seriesnogo, C) connections on the joint venture, in the second section of the IHC is BV-2, protects auxiliary machines, and a motor-fan switch PN switching their low speed to high speed. Differences exist in the whole sections - registering speedometers and radio have also been established in only one section.

In the engine room there are three auxiliary machines section. Home machine - a motor-fan. It consists of a high-voltage (operating at the line voltage) commutator motor and impaled on his shaft centrifugal fan cooling the traction motors and electric IHC, and the collector current generator control, generating a direct current voltage of 50 V for the supply chain management and lighting. Engines motor-fan units can be connected in series (low speed mode) and the parallel mode (high speed).

To ensure the electric motor is used compressed air compressor, consisting of the engine, similar to the motor of the fan motor and three-cylinder diesel compressor unified CT-6. Compressed air is used to operate the brakes on the locomotive and the train, providing work pnevmokontaktorov, pneumatic locks High-camera alarm sounds the whistle (quiet) and Typhon (loud), actuator wiper operation. Reducer between the motor and the compressor is not therefore formed at the engine speed of 440 min-1 and can not samoventilirovatsya, summed for its cooling air from the fan motor.

To supply the windings of traction motors in the regenerative braking mode, when all the windings are connected in series, the transmitter uses (pathogen), which is incorporated in the same housing the collector and the high voltage generator engine that generates DC low voltage (60 V) for the power excitation windings. Maximum current generator - 800 A. On the shaft exciter set the relay turns RKO-28 engine is switched off at excess speed. Excitation of the generator - battery electric locomotive through a resistor, the resistor driver reduces the movement over the brake lever controller, thus increasing generated voltage converter, and with it the voltage produced by the traction motors and braking force.

Operation of electric may be not higher than 1200 m above sea level. Regenerative braking is possible for all three compounds. Work on multiple-unit factory electric circuit is not provided, but in 1983 began equipment VL10 electric equipment ESTIMATES (multiple-unit telecontrol).

Electric locomotive VL10VL10 127V currently used at many railways in Russia and CIS countries. Like many freight locomotives VL10 used in passenger traffic, for example on the North Caucasus, the Lviv railway. Almost all VL10 painted in green, but the "passenger" locomotives can be painted in the colors of branded trains (eg VL10-27, VL10-1835).

The railways of Georgia and Armenia VL10 also serve passenger trains. Azerbaijan Railways have only VL10U at 2 units (1031 and 1032).

In the process of manufacture of electric locomotives VL10 in their design some changes were introduced. From the middle of 1974 they began to produce a cradle suspension body (with electric locomotive number 1297 Novocherkassk and number of plants in 1707 in Tbilisi). Static deflection of spring suspension of these locomotives was 121.5 mm, of which 67 mm falls on cradle suspension. Make small changes to the design of auxiliary machines. With locomotive number 1587 changed a number of types of relays (recovery, overload, differential, etc.). After the 1974 retest traction motors TL-2K1 installed a few changes in their basic parameters. In some electric locomotives VL10 conducted experimental work. The locomotive number 169, and then on the number 249 was used for the automatic preset mode with recovery (set speed or current). In one of the sections of electric VL10-398 in 1972 tested regenerative braking when feeding field windings of traction motors from static converter.

In 1974 the locomotive was VL10-1110 doballastirovan to weight 200 Tc load from the axis on rails 25 ton. To do this, it was taken 16 ton of pig iron. The locomotive in the same year was dynamic tests and trials on the effects on the way. Tests have shown that doballastirovka admissible, and in 1975 two more were released from electric towing weight of 200 ton. All three electric load from the axis 25 ton were designated VL10U (gain in traction).

VL10U - weighted electric locomotive wheels that have more traction with the rails, so that he is able to carry heavier trains. Mechanical parts, he identified with the electric VL80T, VL80S, VL80R. Body, vehicle-part, pneumatic and basic equipment identified with the electric locomotives VL10, VL11, VL11M. Compared with the VL10 on VL10U load of wheel pair on rails increased to 25 instead of 23 tf tf.

VL10U produced Tbilisi and Novocherskasskim Electric Locomotive Plant. In the range of plant TEVZ this model is still present and is built to order. Last VL10U-1032 was built in 2006 by order of the Azerbaijan Railways.

From 1984-1985 TEVZ produced a small batch of electric VL10n for Norilsk industrial tract. These locomotives had no regenerative braking and electric locomotives VL10 different from the lack associated with this mode of equipment.

In 2001 electric locomotives VL10 began to arrive for major repairs to the extension of service to Chelyabinsk Electric Locomotive Plant. They got modernized electronics, new cab and the ability to work in three sections. Index "K" appeared only in 2004.

Electric VL10U also overhauled with the extension of the life of the Chelyabinsk Electric Locomotive Plant, were called VL10uk.


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