The Great Patriotic War has changed the nature of the railways. Almost completely been discontinued passenger service. From the western part of the country occupied by German troops, the industry was evacuated inland, the Urals and Siberia.
The difficulty in achieving this objective has been associated primarily with unprecedented scale in the history of relocation, short periods, as well as the extremely difficult conditions in which the evacuation took place.
Already a few days after Hitler's aggression from the threatened areas of the country to the east moved evacuation flow of goods, the size of which began to increase rapidly. In July 1941, the front-line highways evacuation trains were sometimes one after the other at a distance of several hundred meters.
Government Council was established evacuation that required in the case of forced withdrawal of the Red Army evacuated material values, and if you can not export subject them to destruction; authorized by the Council to monitor the dismantling companies, shipping and receiving equipment at major stations and nodes, working with the Committee on the evacuation of food supplies and unloading of goods in transit.
In drawing up emergency plans, priority was given to the transport of enterprises producing defense products. Only the first two months of 1941 was relocated about 350 major defense plants.
A particular advantage in the administration over all other trains (except military and operational) was also provided with compositions exported population. For evacuation passenger trains was set average speed of 500-600 km. As the rolling stock used mainly covered wagons equipped with bunks and stoves for heating people.
The evacuation of industrial enterprises and the resumption of their activities in new places on the first phase of the war had a great defensive value. Only from July to November 1941 in the eastern regions of the relocated 1,532 large enterprises.
Simultaneously, the export of agricultural machinery, grain, livestock, as well as transport equipment railways.
Great help in the evacuation rendered roads railway troops and organs of military communications. Thus, the Special Corps railway troops secured to the rear transfer of 25,400 wagons, 692 locomotives and a large number of rails. Much attention has been paid to the evacuation of educational and scientific institutions in the rear areas.
The increased flow evakopoezdov forced to look for innovative solutions; for example, applied one-way traffic: in both the main paths in a certain period of time followed by a train in one direction only.
At major train stations in Siberia created special database for unloading and storage equipment evacuated from the front line.
Restoring evacuated to Siberia businesses to create additional prerequisites for the rapid growth of military production, which led to a sharp increase in capital construction. Industry Siberia increased its power and increased output for the front. Therefore, in the first period of the war greatly increased traffic density railway Trans-Siberian Railway.