The history of the development of the railway track
In the mid-nineteenth century, after the hikes and discoveries of Captain Nevelsky and signing in 1858 by Count NN Murav'ev Aigun treaty with China, finally formed the eastern borders of the Russian Empire. In 1860, founded a military outpost of Vladivostok. Post Khabarovsk in 1893 became the city of Khabarovsk. Prior to the 1883 population of the area did not exceed 2,000.
From 1883 to 1885 years made lining the road Ekaterinburg - Tyumen, and in 1886 by the Governor-General of Irkutsk AP Ignatieff and Priamursky Governor-General Baron AN Korff arrived in Petersburg justify the urgency of work on anthrax the pot. Emperor Alexander III said the resolution "So many reports of governors-general of Siberia, and I read with sadness and should be ashamed to admit that the government still has done little to address the needs of the rich but neglected region. And it's time, it's time."
June 6, 1887 by order of the emperor held a meeting of ministers and senior managers of public agencies, which finally it was decided to build. Three months later began development works on the highway from the Ob to the Amur region.
In February 1891, the Cabinet of Ministers decided to start work at the same time from opposite ends of Vladivostok and Chelyabinsk. Their separation distance of more than 8000 kilometers of Siberian.
March 17 of the same 1891 was followed by a rescript of the Emperor in the name of the Crown Prince Nicholas Alexandrovich: "I order to start building a solid across Siberia Railway, having the (target) to connect the abundant gifts of nature Siberian regions with internal rail network messages. I instruct you to declare such, my will, upon entry to the Russian land again after viewing the lands of the East. However, to lay upon you commit Vladivostok Bookmark allowed for the creation, by the Treasury and the direct order of the government, the Ussuri region of the Great Siberian railway track. "
March 19 Tsarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich took the first wheelbarrow lands on the canvas of the future road and laid the first stone of the building of the Vladivostok train station.
In 1892 he was offered the order penetration tracks divided into six sections. The first stage - design and construction of the West Siberian region of Chelyabinsk to Obi (1418 km), Central Siberian from the Ob to Irkutsk (1871 km), and the South Ussuri from Vladivostok to Art. Grafskaya (408 km). The second stage included the road from the station. Cape on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal to Sretensk on p. Shilka (1104 km) and the North-Ussuri region from the Count to Khabarovsk (361 km). And last of all, as the most rugged, Circum-Baikal railway from the station. Baikal in the source of the Angara to Mysovaya (261 km) and no less difficult Amur road from Sretensk to Khabarovsk (2130 km).
In 1893, the Committee was established Siberian railway, chaired by the emperor appointed heir Nicholas Alexandrovich. Committee were attached to the widest powers.
On one of the first meetings of the Committee of the Siberian road construction principles were stated: "... to complete the beginning of the construction of the Siberian railway track is cheap, and most importantly, quickly and firmly"; "Build and well and firmly in order to subsequently complement and not rebuild"; "... To Siberian Railway, this is a great cause of the people, was carried out of the Russian people and Russian materials." And most importantly - build by the Treasury. After much hesitation was allowed to "bringing to build roads ssylnokatorzhnyh, Exiles and different categories of prisoners, providing them for participation in the reduction of sentence." The high cost of construction forced to go on facilitating technical rules laying track. Reduces the width of the roadbed, almost twice the thickness decreased ballast, and on straight roads between the sleepers and did often did without ballast, rails were lighter (18-pound instead of 21 pounds per meter), allowed steeper in comparison with normative, lifts and hills, through small rivers to hang wooden bridges, station buildings were set also facilitated type, often without foundation. All this is calculated on a small road capacity. However, as soon as the load increased, and many times during the war, had to be rushed to lay the second track and necessarily eliminate all the "relief" does not guarantee safety.
From Vladivostok led the way in the direction of Khabarovsk immediately after the consecration of the start of construction in the presence of the heir to the throne. A July 7, 1892, a solemn ceremony of launching the oncoming traffic from Chelyabinsk. The first spike on the western tip of the Siberian route was entrusted to score student interns Petersburg Institute of Railways Alexander Liverovskii.
He, AV Liverovskii, twenty-three years later as chief of the Eastern-Amur railway and scored the last "silver" crutch Great Siberian way. He also led the work on one of the most difficult parts of Circum-Baikal railway. For the first time in the practice of railway construction he used for drilling electricity for the first time he's at your own risk introduced differentiated norms explosives directed, individual purposes - emission, hoeing, etc. He led strip of the second track from Chelyabinsk to Irkutsk. He also finished construction of a unique, 2,600 meters, Amur bridge, the most recent construction on the Siberian road, put into operation only in 1916. Great Siberian Route moved east from Chelyabinsk. Two years later the first train was in Omsk, a year later - at the station before Krivoshchekova Ob (future Novosibirsk), almost at the same time, because of the Obi to Krasnoyarsk work was carried out at four sites met the first train in Krasnoyarsk, and in 1898 year, two years earlier than originally designated period - in Irkutsk. At the end of the same 1898 rails have reached to Lake Baikal. However, before the Circum-Baikal Road there was a stop for six years. Further to the east of the station Mysovaya led the way in 1895 with the firm intention in 1898 (the year after the successful start of the finishing was adopted for all roads in the first place) to finish laying on the track and join the Trans-Baikal railway track leading out to the Amur. But the construction of the following - Amur - the road for a long time it was stopped. The first blow struck permafrost. The flood in 1896 washed away almost everywhere embankments. In 1897, the water of the Selenga, Khilok, Ingoda Shilka and razed the village was completely washed away from the face of the earth Circuit City Doroninsk at four hundred miles from the railway embankment was gone, smashed and buried under silt and debris and construction materials. A year later, had the unprecedented drought, an outbreak of plague and anthrax. Only two years after these events, in 1900, was able to open on the Trans-Baikal road traffic, but it was half lay "on zhivulku."
On the opposite side - from Vladivostok - South Ussuri railway station Count (v. Ants-Amur) was commissioned in 1896, and the North-Ussuri to Khabarovsk completed in 1899.
Remained untouched relegated to last Amur road, and remained inaccessible Circum-Baikal. On the Amur, bumping into impassable places and afraid to get stuck there for a long time, in 1896, chose the southern option through Manchuria (CER), and through Baikal hastily have imposed the ferry and drove from England national teams of the two ferries, icebreakers, for five years had to take trains.
But the easy road never happened even in Western Siberia. Of course, the Ishim and Baraba steppes were lined on the west side of the flat carpet, so track from Chelyabinsk to Obi, as a ruler, was exactly along the 55th parallel of north latitude, exceeding the shortest distance mathematical miles in 1290 only 37 miles away. Here earthworks were using American earthmoving graders. However, in the steppe zone of the forest was not, it was brought from Tobolsk province or from the eastern regions. Gravel, stones for the bridge over the Irtysh and Omsk station carried by rail over 740 miles from the Chelyabinsk and 900 miles by barge along the Irtysh from quarries. Bridge across the Ob River was built 4 years, started from the right bank of the Central Siberian road.
To Krasnoyarsk "the pot" held fast, work proceeded simultaneously at four sites. Fit 18-pound rails. There were areas where it was necessary to raise the blade to 17 meters (in the Trans-Baikal road embankment height reaches up to 32 meters), and there were areas where the recess, and even stone, were comparable to the dungeons.
The bridge over the Yenisei River, which had already scored Krasnoyarsk kilometer wide, made by Professor Laurel Proskuriakov. According to his later drawings is hung was the most ambitious in the Euro-Asian continent bridge over Amur Khabarovsk longer than two and a half kilometers. Krasnoyarsk bridge demanded, because of the nature of the Yenisei River at the time of ice drift significantly greater than the accepted norms, increasing the length of spans. Distance between supports reached 140 meters, the height of metal trusses ascends to the top of the parabola at 20 meters. At the Paris World Exhibition of 1900 model of the bridge length of 27 yards received a gold medal. Transsiberian promoting a broad front, leaving behind not only one's own track and repair facilities, but also schools, schools, hospitals and churches. Stations are usually staged in advance, before the arrival of the first train, and were beautiful and festive architecture - and stone in the big cities and in small wood. Station in Slyudyanka, on the lake, lined with local marble, can not be taken only as a remarkable monument builders of the Circum-Baikal area. The road brought a beautiful shape and bridges, and graceful forms stations, near-station villages, booths, workshops and even depot. And this, in turn, required a decent view of buildings around the forecourt, gardening, gentrification. By 1900, on the Trans-Siberian Railway was built 65 churches and 64 schools were built another 95 churches and 29 schools at the expense of special fund of Emperor Alexander III to help newcomers settlers. Not only that - Transsiberian forced to intervene in the chaotic development of old cities to do their landscaping and decoration.
Trans-Siberian Railway built the whole of Russia. All ministries, whose participation in the construction industry is a necessity, given all the province working hands. Is called: working first hand, the most experienced, qualified, working second hand, third. In some years, when portions of the first line launched operation (1895-1896 gg.), Came out on the track at the same time up to 90 thousand people.
Under Stolypin resettlement flows in Siberia, thanks to ad benefits and guarantees, as well as the magic word "cut", which gives economic independence, once a much increased. Since 1906, when Stolypin headed the government, the population of Siberia has been increasing by half a million people annually. Absorbed more and more arable land, grain harvest rose from 174 million. Pounds in 1901-1905. up to 287 million. pounds in 1911-1915. Trans-Siberian grain matter so much that had to be administered "Chelyabinsk barrier", a special kind of customs duty to limit grain shaft from Siberia. In large quantities went to Europe oil: in 1898 it was loading two and a half thousand tons in 1900 - about eighteen thousand tons, and in 1913 - over seventy thousand tons. Siberia turned into a rich granary, a nurse, and ahead still had to disclose its fabulous mineral wealth. Transportation, including industrial, for several years the Trans increased so that the road is no longer cope. Urgently need a second track and road transfer from temporary to permanent status.
And he, PA Stolypin strongly rescued Transsiberian of Manchu "captivity" (CER), returning through the course of the Siberian road, as well as projected from the beginning, on Russian soil.
Initially, a predetermined amount of the cost of 350 million rubles has been surpassed by three times, and the Ministry of Finance went to these allocations Trans. But the result is: 500-600-700 kilometers annually addition, the pace of construction of railways is neither in America nor in Canada.
Laying the way to the Amur road, in the last run Russian Trans-Siberian Railway was completed in 1915. Head of the construction of the east, the final section of the Amur railway, AV Liverovskii scored the last silver crutch.
The story of building the Trans ended, began the history of its operation.