The history of the development of the railway track
The history of the Russian state, the definition of its boundaries are associated with the development of the Russian North and the development of means of communication in this area. North of Western Siberia has always played and plays an important economic and political role in Russia. In the late nineteenth century, the Russian Empire was a real railway boom. Built in this period railway connects Central Russia from the suburbs. The most important of them - the Trans-Siberian railway, stretching from Chelyabinsk to Vladivostok (1892-1916), became a link in the active development of the southern territories of Siberia.
The idea of the construction of the railway with the prospect of further access to the Bering Strait, and the ability to connect to Alaska appeared during the reign of Alexander II.
At the end of XIX - early XX century there was a wide range of projects and ideas associated with the construction of the railway in the circumpolar towards Arkhangelsk - Obdorsk - Yakutsk with its extension to Chukotka. This line could be the addition of the Northern Sea Route (NSR).
The first draft of highway in the direction of Indigirka Bay - Salekhard - Turuhansk - Yakutsk - Okhotsk was proposed in 1907. For the first time this highway along the Trans-Siberian was officially presented on the map-scheme of perspective development of the railways of the USSR, approved in 1924 by the Council of Labor and Defense.
At the end of the Great Patriotic War, the Arctic Research Institute proved the necessity of the construction of the NSRA strategic purpose.
Resolution of the Council of Ministers on 22 April 1947 provided for construction in the Gulf of Ob on Stone cape seaport. To him it was planned to bring the railroad from Vorkuta region from existing at the time of the Pechora Railway. By the end of 1948 it was opened to traffic trains in the Chum - Labytnangi. At the height of construction it became clear that the Gulf of Ob unsuitable for strategic purposes because of the shallow water. January 29, 1949 Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers № 348-135ss on the Elimination of construction on the Yamal Peninsula, the transfer of the head of the port and other facilities NSRA to Igarka, on the construction of the Salekhard - Igarka length of 1,263 km with a ferry and ice crossings across the Ob and Yenisei . It was decided to move the port to Igarka and pave the Polaris line Chum - Salekhard - Igarka. Building provided with lightweight specifications. The main purpose of the road - military-strategic software northern borders of the country. For the North line as a whole for the domestic construction, characterized by: length, a significant amount of work, undeveloped areas and difficult natural conditions.
On the technical characteristics of the Salekhard - Igarka
The total length of the line - 1300 km (in 1953 built entirely around 700 km), with single track travels through 9-14 km, 40-60 km through the station just 106 trips, 28 stations. The average speed of trains traveling with stops at about 40 km / h, including acceleration and braking. Dimensions have been set in motion 6 pairs of trains per day. The main depot planned stations Salekhard, Nadym, Pur, Taz, Yermakovo Igarka; current account - at stations Yarudey, Kataran, Turuhan, Yenisei.
People Salekhard - Igarka called "Stalinka", and the pace of its construction hit - about 100 km per year. In the spring of 1949 the track stretched in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the area of tundra and taiga built stations, depots, bridges were thrown. Construction of production were two columns construction boards GULZhDS - 501 and 503. The work was done by two-beam organizational chart. By 1952-1953 gg builders were supposed to meet on the banks of the river Pur, about the middle of the 1300 kilometer route. Qualitatively built on permafrost grand object in a short time - a task unrealistic, and therefore it was decided to construct the road at low standards and with a huge concentration of manpower.
By 1953 the labor movement has already carried out at the site of the Salekhard - Nadym and further to 620 km, the area 970-1155 km between stations Yermakovo and Yanov Stan, while in section 620-640 km and 1400-1482 km were paved roadbed. Across the river Ob operated ferry crossing ice on the river Nadym had a low water bridge. In a short time on the site Taz station was built 17.5 km of track, station, the entire population moved to the village Sidorovsk.
After Stalin's death a grand building was originally conserved, and then stopped, except for a few small areas.
After construction (Decree of the USSR 895-383ss of 25 March 1953) of the wealth taken out, but the basic machinery and equipment remained in place, remove them was not profitable.
In 1956 Land Chum - Labytnangi was transferred to the Ministry of Railways of the USSR and the eastern part - Norilsk Mining and Metallurgical Combine
At present, the road is a picture of all conceivable kinds of destruction. The name "Dead Road" could not be more accurately describes its current state - the remains of the track, crumbling mound, the rusting remains of locomotives and wagons.
Roadbed "Dead Roads" is basically a low (up to 2 meters) mound. When crossing the streams, which in large numbers are on the road, embankment height is increased to 6.8 meters on the west, and more than 10 meters in the eastern sector. To skip a mound of small streams were built plank and log triangular cross-section of the pipe. To go through the small rivers and dries in summer bed constructed small wooden bridges on piles and piers ryazhevyh length of 6-25 m span structure in wood, rail packages and solid metal beams in the main German production. Large low water wooden bridge across the river Nadym finally demolished only in the 70s. Bridges over the river and Barabaniha Makovskaya three- and chetyrehproletnye metal on concrete piers. Their length 60 and 100 m, respectively 12-15 and height of 15 m above the water's edge. Bridge on the River Turuhan - the most significant building - not finished. Were erected abutments displayed on the working level of the river three concrete pillars. Builders are gone, leaving concrete works. At the top of poles, which lacks the breaking of the ice is still there blackened plank formwork. The most characteristic destruction of railroad tracks - blowing drawdown depths. The most important centers of destruction became watercourses. Gullies, reaching to the soles of the mound and thus reaching 10-15 m depth, on the brow mounds are tens of meters. Almost all small bridges subjected to extrusion up to a few meters above the mound, forming a huge humps. Seriously affected large bridges road. Rotted sleepers, rails twisted and stuck on the canvas, heavily corroded by rust.
Along with rails Kuznetsk Combine rolled 30s were widely used rails pre-revolutionary production up to the oldest and most types of light weight of 30.9 kg / m. There are 16 species of domestic rail, including 12 kinds of pre-revolutionary, even XIX-th century. In the largest number of found tracks that were released Nadezhdinskaya Plant (Moscow-Kazan railway, the HDC 1914, 1911 et al.), State-owned factories Prince Beloselsky (1901 et al.), Novorossiysk Society (1909), Nizhnetagilskye Demidov plants (West Ural, the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod railway 1870), as well as track the Ural metallurgical w. d. 1877.
Unique in its weakness path laid in the area p. Taz. Intermediate bonding along the length of the rail missing, sewn rails to the sleepers, pads only at the joints. Flat strip of thin steel plate with traces homebrewed forging secured only from the outside of the rail. Inside, instead of metal pads used wooden blocks.
Worked on the construction mainly low-power locomotives built before the Revolution. Managed to find 11 locomotives 1904-1907., About 80 cars. Many cars are built well-known domestic enterprises - factory "Sormovo" in Nizhny Novgorod, "Russian-Baltic wagon factory", in Riga, the "engine" in Revel, "Phoenix" in Riga, Chekhov railcar plant, as well as workshops Pinsk Polesie railways and some others. There are cars of the Austrian, Czech, German, Hungarian production.
Today, interest in railway construction in the North increases again. And the revival of "death road" Salekhard - Igarka, as part of the Circumpolar line from Vorkuta to Uelena (with the continuation of Alaska through the tunnel under the Bering Strait), may be an important link in the creation of intercontinental transport corridors Eurasia.