Railways during the war (1941 - 1945)
By the end of September 1941 North Caucasus Railway was the frontline. Rostov and Shakhty branch is located directly in the combat zone. Hundreds of thousands of people, machines, equipment and entire businesses were evacuated to the East. And meet them walked and walked trains with troops, weapons, material support.
Before the arrival of the Germans was blown up everything you can. Fortunately, at that time they stayed in the Don steppes long. But in the summer of 1942 began the second attack of the Nazis. The evacuation of the south railroad, their families, all the railway sector. Took away all: and turnouts Track Vehicles, machinery and cars. Task Force remained in Sochi, because part of the road was cut and captured by the enemy. Almost from October 1941 to September 1943 the road was partially under occupation.
And yet, in spite of everything, the way she lived. In 1942 he was commissioned in the 17-kilometer stretch of Kiziterinka - Bataysk, built 48 kilometers of Adler - Bzyb. In 1944 was built 129 kilometers Crimean - Taman - Caucasus. Plots were of strategic importance and were controlled by the GHQ. In April 1943, the chief of the road signed an order for the restoration of the Road home appliances. One of the first objects restored in the liberated Rostov became the Children's Railway.
At the end of 1945 at the North-Caucasian road was restored to 99.7% and 66% of the main station the way, 68% of the housing stock and 78% of schools.
The defeat of the fascist German troops at Stalingrad created favorable conditions for large-scale offensive operations of our troops. For one month only fought was passed about 600 kilometers from the foothills of the Caucasus to the Krasnodar, Rostov, the Taman peninsula.
Retreating enemy savagely destroyed communication, especially railways. The Nazis destroyed bridges, pipes, overpasses, turnouts, alarms and communications, water supply, service and technical buildings. On the site Dargkoh - Cool explosion Tolowa Language checkers each rail was broken into two or three parts. Destroyed almost all the man-made structures. Near the station Tikhoretskaya on railroad tracks were set bombs. Were cleared and destroyed about 800 mines of various samples.
Almost 2 billion rubles in pre-war prices - as many estimated the damage caused by the Nazis of the North Caucasus road during the retreat. Only large, small and medium-sized bridges were destroyed or damaged 2.5 thousand. The velocity of the times was 10.5 kilometers. Nevertheless, in 1943 the front was more than 160 thousand. Cars with different loads.
Rehabilitation of railways in the liberated territories, as a rule, in three stages. At the first stage was carried out laying the main road, restoration of bridges (permanent or temporary, depending on the degree of destruction), the minimum number of tracks at stations and nodes, a temporary connection device, water, electricity, temporary station buildings and other structures. This was necessary in order to open as quickly as possible for trains portion with at least a low speed. Secondarily restored locomotive apparatus, cars and power economy. Structures leads to a state guarantee the normal movement of trains. This volume of reconstruction was to provide a given bandwidth without speed limits. The third phase includes the full restoration of the railways to the pre-existing bandwidth.
Special attention to demand the restoration of bridges over the Don on the site Bataisk - Rostov. Here there was not a whole support. The lack of bridges delayed the opening of traffic on the line, which is of great importance for the upcoming supply units and formations of the South, South-Western and Voronezh Fronts. Command to set a deadline of 650 hours of work. Recovery kept within 614 hours in advance to cope with the extremely important task. Construction began on March 5, 1943, and March 29, 1943 on the bridges went trains.
The enemy fiercely bombed ferry built during and after their recovery. Enemy planes made on the bridges of three or more attacks per day. There were massive strikes, each of them took part, as a rule, several links bombers. Just for one day May 10, 1943 at the enemy dropped the bridges across the Don 240 bombs. But even the most violent bombardment did not stop the movement of trains more than a few hours.
Simultaneously with the restoration of railway bridges laid a new way of Bataysk to Rostov and actually re-built bypass Aksai Rostov node. Already on May 1, was put into operation the southern hill mechanized sorting station.
In late March, the time of passage of the first train through the revival of the bridges was completed and the first phase of restoration work throughout the course of the main road named after Voroshilov of Mineral Waters to Rostov.
Since the second half of March fronts in transport needs have become more fully satisfied. By 20 March at the North-Caucasian Front was delivered 148 wagons of ammunition, more than 5 thousand. Tons of fuel, a large number of rifles, machine guns and other supplies.
Employees worked selflessly road, sometimes making heroic deeds. Until the final hour before the first Soviet troops leaving Rostov in 1941 led the evacuation and road obstruction job AI Netsvetaev. Nazis brutally murdered him at Gemernitskogo tram bridge. In those difficult days were also killed the chief of distance path AP Klotchkov, head of the passenger wagon depot L. Brodsky and others. Many of them posthumously were awarded high government awards, including AI Netsvetaev - the Order of Lenin.
Workers of the Transcaucasian road made great efforts for the smooth delivery of the front of ammunition and fuel, food and manpower. Batumi is supplied with fuel ships of the Black Sea Fleet. Continuous flow from Baku went routes with oil. Chiatura manganese ore was sent to steel mills for steel.
In an unprecedentedly short period of time in difficult conditions was completed Black Sea railway line will open up through traffic from the Caucasus in the Krasnodar region.
By tradition, on May 9 in the vicinity of the railway runs Rostov retro train. Locomotive is decorated with green garlands, flowers and flags. The train - comfortable carriages and a restaurant car. The traditional route is around Rostov-on-Don, Bataisk - Day - Rostov-West - Rostov-Chief - Bataisk. On the station platform before the departure of the train passes a unique rally sound front songs. The composition of lead locomotive P-36. Such machines in Russia there are only four instances. One of them is in the locomotive depot Tikhoretskaya North Caucasus Railway.