Railways during the war (1941 - 1945)
September 8, 1941 Nazi troops broke through the station at Mga Shlissel'burg and closed the blockade. The only way by which you can deliver goods to Leningrad in large volumes and to evacuate people from the besieged city, was Ladoga.
Here began the construction of berths for vessels rapidly create powerful Ladoga railway junction. At the station, Lake Ladoga number of paths increased from four to more than twenty, there were devices for equipment, water supply, two triangles to turn locomotives. For communication with Leningrad was reconstructed light density deadlock Irinovskaya line. Before the war on Irinovskaya line went 3-4 pairs of suburban trains steam, but in 1941 it became the only way out of besieged Leningrad, has become a major highway, and the deaf, a small station Ladoga Lake - a large railway junction with the adjoining lakes and rivers port.
On a cold day in October 1941, when the station Lake Ladoga formed the first part of the food, delivered by barge, the Germans launched air raids. Died on the railway stations, port workers, boatman. But the work did not slow down: Leningrad waited for food and ammunition. Within 20 days of October Ladoga gave the city on the Neva 848 freight cars, in November - 943. Then frozen Lake Ladoga. Between the eastern and western shores was built ice road.
After the beginning of December 1941, our troops liberated Tikhvin, construction began on a 34-kilometer railway line from the station Voybokalo (Volhovstroevskoy on line) to the station Spit on the eastern shore of Lake Ladoga.
Here, by February 1942 there was a big lake and river port Kobona, dubbed the nearby fishing village. At the same time expanded and Ladoga port, where new stations were to become Ladoga node.
Thus was formed the famous rail-water and ice-motorway Big Land - Leningrad. Ladoga epic lasted more than a year, and each day was filled with her heroic work, railway workers, motorists, builders, conductors.
January 22, 1943 in a narrow band to break the blockade by the decision of the State Committee of Defense has begun construction of a railway Shlissel'burg - Fields 33 km from the ice overpass across the Neva. That this is directly linked to Leningrad with the mainland. Road Victory worked until 10 March 1944.
First on the road there were a Shlisselburgskaya 2-3 pairs of trains per day. This city was not enough. Then it was introduced trains caravan way: one night - in Leningrad, another - from Leningrad. The interval between trains of 20-30 minutes with gradually been reduced to 3-5 minutes, making it possible to pass over night in one direction trains 16-25. Each flight on this route was equal to exploit people working under constant shelling. Railway workers called this way "corridor of death".
February 7, 1943 to the sound of the orchestra to the dilapidated Finland Station came the first train from the mainland. The composition of the food in Leningrad led the best team of the locomotive depot 708-64 .eu "Volkhov" as part of the driver IP Pirozhenko, assistant engineer VS Dyatleva, fireman Irina Antonova.
In June-August 1943, Soviet troops inflicted a heavy defeat on the troops of the 18th German fascist army at Mga ledge. September 15 soldiers of the 67th Army stormed Sinyavino Heights, where the enemy fired at Victory Road. At the same time there was a preparation for a major offensive at Leningrad and Novgorod.
January 14, 1944, Soviet troops launched an offensive at Leningrad and Novgorod and stubborn battles defeated the German fascist troops of the Army Group "North". By the end of February, our troops advanced 220-280 km, liberated from the enemy all the Leningrad region and part of Kalinin (now Tver). To celebrate the lifting of the blockade of January 27, 1944 in Leningrad salute was fired.
Retreating Nazi troops destroyed the railways, destroyed bridges, track structure, communication lines, water supply device locomotive and other farms. Many sections of track and other railway facilities were mined. Only on the line from the station platform Dachnoe Ligovo sappers removed and neutralized every kilometer to 1500 minutes.
In the liberated areas, work began on the restoration of the railways. For the opening movement of trains between Moscow and Leningrad on the main track had a short time to restore destroyed section Popivka-Luban-Chudovo-Doubtsov.
I had to work in a thirty-degree frost and strong blizzard. On the site Popivka-Doubtsov mined from deep wells, mines, tunnels were recovered more than 10 thousand. Minutes, hundreds of bombs and unexploded ordnance. In a very short time managed to build a large bridge over the river Volkhov from Chudova and medium-sized bridges over the river tion, Tigoda and others. By Day of the Red Army February 23, 1944 all restoration work on the site Kolpino-Popivka-Doubtsov been completed.
From the city on the Neva River to Moscow followed the first after the lifting of the blockade freight train. On the same day the same train arrived from the capital to Leningrad. Simultaneously, Leningrad and Moscow railway prepared for the first flight posleblokadny Express "Red Arrow".
Railway workers have played an important role in the evacuation of the population, the supply of fronts and fleets weapons and food, in maintaining the vitality of the city.
15 thousand. Railwaymen were awarded the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad".
From the memoirs of Tatiana K. Smirnova, hereditary zheleznodorozhnitsy of Volosovo.
"... I remember about my childhood that fell on hard times of war. Lived at the station 50 meters from the railway where trains go from Leningrad on the main highway through Babaevo, Vologda to the Urals and Siberia. Write consider it my duty, in memory of father Konstantin Abaturova, worked all his life on the move, on the difficult section of the road. He was awarded the Order of Lenin. mannered, not handed over to an orphanage us four children without a mother. Balanced, with a friendly character, he gave us a good attitude to work and the love of the railway, with which I, sister and brother tied life.
The train station was Teshemlya from the district center Babaevo 22 kilometers, was the border, 10 kilometers from her patrol Verhnevolsky Leningrad region. In Teshemle and lived our family of six people in a railway house. I in June 1941, was 10 years old.
War abruptly changed people's lives. Mothers, wives with children from the villages on foot with bundles of products come to the station. Crying, please contact Babaevo, learn, on which train go son, husband, brother, how to say goodbye to them and to receive food for the journey. Train with soldiers from Babaevo walked past Teshemli, pass. Words can not convey what was ... Women desperately shouting: "Kolya, Vanya, Misha! .." Freight wagons with the door open. At the door nailed across the board. Soldiers, leaning out of a passing train carriages, also shouted: "Take care of the children, Anna! Goodbye! .."
In June-July to mid-August 1941 from Leningrad removal of children without parents - with teachers in a passenger train in the heartland. Commodity echelons summer of 1941 brought from Leningrad to the Urals enormous wealth, equipment and factories. Accompanied by their experts. And on the highway dusty road to the east drove cattle - cows. Continuous flow from the front foot, laden, were refugees, exhausted by the long-range. To meet them to Leningrad - the troops.
Traffic was intense: one composition held, followed by the second, third and so on ... on the stretch between the railway station a mile from each other were placed chains whistle with flags - red, yellow, green. They showed the engineer, whether the path is free. Railwaymen transferred to a military barracks. Lived at the station. Discipline was iron.
Trains were no beeps arrival and departure. Railway mechanization no. Compositions pulled locomotives, they went on the wood and water. Station duty officer at any time of the year, the day met the train in uniform red cap in hand to the signal, in the evening - with a flashlight and a rod, permitting the operator to the movement to the next station. Sometimes a warning on which city to slow down if there is a repair pathways. Wand at the desk took fireman locomotive. Caught in the hand.
But the enemy was approaching. The bombing started. The first time our station bombed August 28, 1941, in the evening. Its ways was a trainload of troops. Suddenly appeared bomber. Residents fled farther away from the railway. Do not know what to go to bed. From that day bombing became frequent. At night, throwing a missile on a parachute. It was as bright as day. To protect the station tracks from German planes brought anti-aircraft guns on the platform, put to the warehouse, masked.
August 21, 1941, German troops occupied the railway junction - station Chudovo-Moscow. Trains began to pass on to Moscow and to the east of the country through Vologda. With a huge load worked railway Vologda - Babaevo - fence. Passed in the night of 60-80 trains.
29 August 1941 enemy aircraft heavily bombed the station Mga. All the roads were destroyed. And on September 8 fascists broke through the MSU Shlissel'burg and cut off Leningrad from the country.
Beginning of the siege. From that day supply of Leningrad and evacuation of people carried out across Lake Ladoga. The road of life coming out of the forest at the station fence. At the station building now hangs a plaque with the words "There is a road of life." This station for siding Verhnevolsky, twenty three kilometers from Teshemli. Winter was harsh, snowy. Frost over thirty degrees. The forests were many wolves, but they did not attack people. Under the Nazi bombing aircraft to the front followed by troop trains with soldiers, weapons, food, ammunition, fuel, and equipment. A forward, from the front to the rear, hospital trains were wounded. The cars - a red cross. Nazi pilots hunted for them. In 1942, the station Babaevo brutally bombed a hospital train. Many were killed, were among the dead railroad.
Trainloads of soldiers went to the front, and people did not have weapons of protection. Enemy planes dropping bombs, dropping, scribbled with machine guns. Steam locomotives were forbidden to give the signal of departure. Soldiers collected responsible for tier. When the soldiers brought from Siberia, it turned out differently. Siberians - hunters, daring, and took a lot of their hunting rifles. When raids bombers they opened fire. Railway workers said: "Today brought the Siberians. The station was defended." Between the stations movement was a single-track. Trains followed in both directions crossed at the station. One train arrives with a stop, and he should meet the other passage. And so the war.
Once at the station was a part of, coming to the front. Bomb hit the middle tier one car caught fire. Father quickly unhooked it gave light up another car.
Close to Teshemley - patrol number 19 - Verhnevolsky. He was often bombed as us. There was a part of a military cargo. One bomb hit the car of mine. Exploded strongly in Teshemle were all in a fright. We went to school lesson. We children jumped crying out for a party - and at the door. Teacher ahead: closed the door on a stick and stood as a shield. Not released and change.
From that day communication with Verhnevolskim interrupted. The movement has risen. Father went to find out what happened. On the train reached the semaphore siding, crawling got to dial fast. Switchman lay dead. Torn and burned all at the station. Back in Teshemlyu father reported the situation.
Later, by order of the branch of the road, he took Verhnevolsky. Provided switchmen of Teshemli. And he proceeded to duty, trains pass. Both died switchman on duty. Killed whole team railroad Verhnevolskogo. At the site of the station building and ways - a huge crater. To restore movement, arrived two railway rehabilitation train with cranes. Instead of putting the station after some time put boxcar. Nazi pilots hunted for uniform red cap. Dropping bombs coming down, scribbled a machine gun. There were many German air raids on the moving train. I remember on the way to Teshemle bomber attacked a moving train with evacuees Leningraders. The train stood up were killed driver, his assistant, stoker and chief conductor. Many were killed and wounded was Leningrad. People jumped into the deep snow. With difficulty then collected alive.
Yes, along the railroad holy places - they are watered with the blood of the people. There rest of Leningrad, sailors, soldiers, railwaymen, buried after the bombings in the harsh days of the war. "