History of the development of rolling stock
Since opening in Russia in the first railway desire to increase train speeds and, consequently, reduce travel times been a priority of the engineering corps of the country.
September 1, 1853 from St. Petersburg to Moscow went to the first high-speed train. It was 12:00 in a way of which 1 hr. 20 min. were in the parking lot.
The first experiments to create a high-speed models of locomotives in the Soviet Union beginning in the thirties of the twentieth century. In 1934 at the Kolomna plant were carried out preliminary designs of high-speed locomotives - 2-3-1 type grate area of 5 square meters and type 1-3-2 and 2-3-2 with a grate area of 6.5 square meters. m. Was made by 2 experienced engine. Experienced travel new locomotives were on the Moscow - Leningrad. April 24, 1938 when following a single locomotive reached speed of 160 km/h, and on June 29 at the site Lihoslavl-Kalinin, one of the locomotives with a train of 14 axes (4 cars) has a top speed of 170 km/h.
Planned construction of another 10 locomotives of this type for the October Railway, but the war prevented this exercise.
In 1937 the plant produced Voroshilovgradsky locomotive IS20-16 ("Joseph Stalin") with cover-fairing. In tests, this locomotive has a top speed of 155 km/h.
High-speed locomotive number 6998 is designed to Voroshilovgrad plant under the supervision of an engineer D.V.Lvova. Its production was completed in April 1938 Wheel diameter is 2200 mm and the construction speed - 180 km/h.
Officially began the development of high-speed railways in our country belongs to 1957, when the order of the Ministry of Railways on 29 May 1957 "On the preparation of the Moscow-Leningrad to the movement of passenger trains at high speed" has developed a program of action and defines organizational and technical measures to ensure the solution of the problem.
In 1957 the locomotive at the site TE7-001 Wedge-Reshetnikovo-Zavidovo with a train weighing 1010 tonnes maximum speed of 129 km/h, on the stretch Pokrovka-wedge having a slope of 5 ‰, the maximum speed was 134 km / h. With trains weighing 800-900 tons locomotive developed a speed of 140 km/h.
Diesel TE7 served by passenger trains on the route Moscow-Leningrad until 1963, and since 1960 they drove "Daily Express", goes from Moscow to Leningrad for 6 hr. 20 min.
Opportunities to increase speeds inextricably linked readily to this infrastructure. At the first stage, the most bottleneck inhibits the growth velocities were station. Speed on turnouts stations were allowed only up to 100 km / h. To overcome these limitations was closed 18 low-density stations and removed from the main ways other than 100 separate items rarely used turnouts. In 1960, the road was completely laid on the macadam base with rails P50, elongated curves and stacked direct insertion between the curves produced by amplification of artificial structures, closed a number of crossings. With the development of high speeds of up to 120 km / h line raiway economy has undergone major renovation. Were used turnouts with vkladyshno-nakladochnoe root mount and more powerful cross. After tests speed on such transfers on the direct route was increased to 120 km/h.
Since 1961 began to use reinforced turnouts type P65. Arrows on such trains were held at speeds up to 140 km/h.
In 1963 started trial styling specialized high-speed turnouts. Operation of such transfers proved that they provide the movement of trains at speeds up to 160 km/h.
Electric series ChS2 operated on the route Moscow - Leningrad, serving high-speed trains and developing speed to 160 km/h. In 1965 were carried out by experienced travel series in which the electric ChS2 with the composition goes from Leningrad to Moscow for 4 hr. 59 min.
June 12, 1963 took a trip experienced "high-speed" Express "Aurora", which has gone for 5 hr. 27 min. Improved electrical system, automation, remote control and communication, so that in 1965, while in the path Express "Aurora" was reduced to 4 h. 59 min., And routing speed is increased to 130.4 km/h.
During the period of 1961-1965 throughout the lengthy rails were laid type P-65 reinforced concrete sleepers. More than 250 high-speed turnouts replaced by 2-fold reduction in the number of crossings, and all of them are equipped with automatic gates with automatic crossing signaling, along the line of the fence installed, preventing the release of pets and forest dwellers on the line. Was established the feasibility of narrowing the track 4-6 mm - to 1520 mm, which provides more stability track lattice, prolong the service life of sleepers. Throughout the second was mounted trolley wire, adjust overhead catenary.
In 1970 for studies of the interaction of the crew and the way aeronautical engineering design bureau AS Yakovlev, Kalinin railcar plant and VNIIVO was designed and manufactured high-speed train experienced laboratory with air jet. At the head of an electric car ER22 installed two turbojet engines AI-25 and aerodynamic fairings. Dynamic tests dvuhvagonnogo train weighing 60 tons were held in 1972 on the Dnieper road. In the course of experienced travel was reached maximum speed 249 km / h.
The project of the new car was made RT200 Kalinin Carriage Works. In 1972, were built by experienced coaches. There were eight cars manufactured and buffet car, which together with the wagon-power plant formed desyativagonny composition.
In Czechoslovakia the locomotives were ordered to speed of 200 km/h - CHS200.
Test "Russian Troika" were carried out on the line Leningrad - Moscow, mostly in the area of Leningrad - Chudovo, which were carried out successful dynamic tests of the train at a speed of 210 km / h electric locomotives with CHS2M, CHS2T and later CHS200. June 26, 1976 "Russian Troika", driven by an electric locomotive CHS200, proceeded to land Luban - Chudovo at a speed of 220 km/h.
Tests of the first car RT200 conducted during June - August 1973. Train number 5003 consisted of electric CHS2M, two all-metal cover cars and car RT200 between them.
September 18, 1973 "Russian Troika" made its first test flight from Leningrad to Moscow. The first scheduled flight with passengers "Russian Troika" went 8 July 1975. The train was on schedule, "Aurora" with the arrival in Moscow at 18:43. Regular flights RT200 made before 1980.
March 1, 1984 the first regular flight made ER200. Since 1984 and until February 2009, he shuttled between St. Petersburg and Moscow, with a maximum speed of 200 km / h.
In 1993 the St. Petersburg-Moscow railway locomotive October TEP80 set a record speed for locomotives - 271 km/h.
However superfast locomotive TEP80 proved quite popular in practice. If during the creation of the previous model, TEP75, there was still a range where required passenger locomotives capacity of 6000 hp, then by the time construction TEP80 all the lines, where the locomotive could find applications have already been electrified. In addition, due to the collapse of the USSR to establish serial production of the locomotive did not have time (Kolomna Plant was released just two locomotive TEP80) .But he still holds the palm of speed among locomotives and still is the fastest in the world.
In 1995 the Collegium of the Ministry of Railways of the Russian Federation, it was decided on a comprehensive reconstruction of the highway St. Petersburg - Moscow for high-speed traffic.
In the years 1996-2000 was carried out grandiose reconstruction Petersburg-Moscow highway, and actually built on modern technologies the new railway. Due to the reconstruction of the compositions can now reach speeds of 200-250 km/h.
Tested the application of domestic discharge-pulse technology "treatment" of subgrade, designed and manufactured parts from domestic contact network KC-200, the modernization of signaling and communication devices used a new type of automatic block system with tonal track circuits.
In 2001, the regular operation received the first part of the train "Nevsky Express". Wagons designed for speeds of 200 km/h, set in the same factory as the "Russian Troika", although they are not a logical extension of it.
By the fall of 2001 the main line of the road there was the first domestic high-speed part of "Falcon-250" (speed up to 250 km/h.).
In the complex reconstruction of the highway St. Petersburg-Moscow to build a unique depot maintenance of high-speed trains in the station Metallostroy. Its area - 44.3 hectares.
Electric train Sapsan
Since 2009, on the lines of a wide (1,520 mm) gauge railway Russia exploited new trains "Peregrine" technology Siemens. Composite train - 4 engine and 6 trailer cars, trucks numbers - 20, including 8 motor. Supply 3 kV DC and 25 kV, 50 Hz AC. Rated power - 8800 kW, maximum speed - 250 km/h. Number of seats - 600.
Over the past 40 years the demand for high-speed rail has grown considerably. High-speed trains, from the point of view of consumers, are superior to other forms of transport for long journeys, the level of comfort and safety, gentle on the environment. These advantages will grow in the near future, due to increased length of lines suitable for high-speed movement.