History of the development of rolling stock
Production of the first wagons (trolleys) in Russia in the mid-XVIII century. As car building industry originated in the mid 40-ies of the XIX century. When in connection with the construction of the first mainline railway Petersburg-Moscow (1843) for the production of cars was isolated state (treasury) Alexander Casting and Mechanical Plant in St. Petersburg.
History of domestic car building as well as the history of railways in Russia began with the Tsarskoye Selo road October 30, 1837.
On this day, after the UK, USA, France, Germany and Belgium, our country has taken the first step to becoming a great power rail. At that time, Russia was not a plant producing locomotives, pastures, rails and other railway equipment - all essential equipment (building materials, rails, rolling stock, etc.) purchased abroad.
A feature of the rolling stock of the era was the fact that the railway was designed primarily to carry passengers. Mainly passenger cars were ordered for suburban trips, t. E., Without beds, toilets and cupboards. The first cars were Tsarskoselskaya line biaxial had wooden frame and body. For coupling of compound used as a chain. Frame was attached to the car one buffer that protects cars from colliding with manual braking. The load of the weight of the car passed on the housing through the leaf springs, except for vehicles of the 4th class, which springs were not.
Special comfort different wagons "Berlin". In each of the department, for 8 people, located opposite each other on four armchairs with armrests.
In the department of "coaches" set soft seats without armrests for five people each, so in one compartment was placed 10 passengers.
Open wagons "chaise" had walls up to half the height of the body, they placed closer passengers: on each rigid bench sat six, separation was calculated for 12 people. In the "wagons" fourth grade in order to obtain greater profits from August 8, 1838 to increase the capacity of the bench and removed the passengers were forced to ride standing; then their "jammed" up to 100 people. No heating, no lighting in the cars was not so in the evening companions could not see each other. Only in the 40s of the XIX century had introduced a closed carriage candles.
In the late 40-ies on the road Tsarskoselskaya there were 57 passenger cars (including 9 of the first class, 43 - the second and 5 - the third) and 33 commodities. Capacity crews increased 1.5-2 times, and the most massive become second-class carriages. In the early 50-ies of the XIX century. formed new types of cars, and the old names have lost their significance. The term "wagon", derived from the English "waggon" (wagon, cart, wagon), came into use along with the "wagon" and "crew" as a generic term. The cars of the fourth class was abolished, increasing their class. Third-class carriages were divided now into two types: closed and open line coach.
In the second half of the 60s of the XIX century. Plant Kokerilya put on the road a few new cars 1st and 2nd grades. The exterior walls were covered in their sheet metal, inside the body studded 16-mm boards and cloth. Floor and ceiling were made double, with felt pad between the boards, the roof was covered with sheet zinc. Wagons 1st class were painted dark blue and wagons 2nd class - in cerise. The windows were double, with mirrored glass. During this period, coach-type cars with individual entrance to each department were gradually replaced by others - with pass-through in the middle and entrance sites at the ends. First Class lounges crews were decorated with mahogany on the end piers were installed small mirrors, each seat - an ashtray on the windows - blue silk curtains on the floor - colored velvet carpet.
In 1870, the cars entered furnace heating, and in October 1872 it was replaced by steam.
When designing Tsarskoselskaya line for maintenance and repair of rolling stock were provided special company, called at the time the locomotive and wagon shed. The first locomotives and wagons Tsarskoselskaya road going in Tsarskoye Selo. In the late summer of 1836 there began work on the construction of the locomotive and wagon sheds. Major work on their construction completed by April 1838
Monthly workshops Tsarskoselskaya road repairs were 1-2 big engine, 3- 4 cars, technical inspection subjected 11-12 20-35 locomotives and wagons.
The staff was small workshops: 18 people in the locomotive workshops and 17 - in the car. The most highly paid employees were turners, modellers foundry and blacksmith, whose monthly salary was 30 rubles; laborers received three times less. Part of parts for repair of rolling stock produced yourself workshops, the most complex brought from abroad. British and Belgian plants, later the company Krupp in Germany, delivered to the rolling stock of the Tsarskoye Selo railway locomotive and wagon axle, tires, wheel centers, springs. With the development of the Russian iron industry and the construction of railways Society Tsarskoselskaya road was to place orders for domestic plants.
Tsarskoye Selo railway in Russia was the only rail road for public use for 15 years.
In 1843 construction began on the first Russian mainline railway between St. Petersburg and Moscow (officially opened on November 1, 1851.). For this ambitious for the time line required about 3,000 cars. In a significant number of cars needed in Russia and the second main railways - Petersburg, Warsaw, completely open to regular traffic, the v1862
Construction of the first cars (like steam locomotives), intended for building Petersburg-Moscow railway, it was decided to organize one of the best works of the time - the Alexander Ironworks is located in St. Petersburg, on the banks of the Neva River. In this regard, in 1843 Alexander ironworks was transferred from the Department of Mining and Salt Affairs Ministry of Finance of the General Directorate of Railways and was soon renamed the Alexander mechanical plant. Led them to the Americans and the Harrison Uaynens, which was contracted for 6 years. The contract provided for the restructuring of the plant and equipment necessary machines, machines and tools, and training to service trains, as well as the construction of 162 locomotives and 2,720 wagons.
In 1843 the Department of Technical Commission railways determine the type and design of cars. In its ruling, she opted for a four wagons, which in comparison with two- and three-axle with the same volume of the body had a lower specific gravity, with a lower risk splitability axis, were more resistant and less upsetting way. The Commission found that the capacity of freight cars must be up to 8 tons, wheel diameter - 914 mm, the diameter of the axis in the middle - 82.5 mm in the neck - 63.5 mm. Wheels material - heat treated cast iron hardened.
Further development of the railcar was associated with the expansion of the railways in Russia, especially after the 1861 reform, facilitate the transition of the royal feudal Russia in the capitalist path of development.
Starting from 1863 (with a limited production of the metal in the country), technical and economic performance cars improved by the use of two-axle designs.
In 1859 Alexander began to build the plant open wagons for transportation crews, coaches, military health vans, field kitchens, artillery gigs. Was built wagon for transportation of gunpowder and other explosives. Body him, covered with steel plates on the outside, had no protruding parts, and inside was lined with felt and zinc sheets, reinforced with copper nails.
In the south-west of the road there were bunk wagons for transportation of sheep (1882). There were also special wagons for transportation of live birds.
Transport of perishable goods, to save that require a certain temperature, demanded the construction of refrigerator cars, different insulation body and the presence of devices for cooling load and sometimes ventilation devices.
The first isothermal wagons with ice-cooled (refrigerated wagons) appeared in Russia in 1862, earlier than in the US.
The predecessor of modern tilting trains a ballast wagon, built in 1868, ie long before the dump cars in the United States. For rashes cargo body could lean in one or the other way. The car had a small length of the body volume was 3 m, container wagon - 2 t.
The former special freight cars park also includes cars: fire the tool and baggage (1870); to carry water with wooden tanks (1872); bath (1874); for transportation of charcoal with a high body (1878); health (1882); for transportation of alcohol (1885); temporarily meat and fruit temporarily; wagons shops; wagons cuisine; for transportation of sulfuric acid; for the transport of zinc chloride; sleeper impregnation; for transportation of resin; for transportation of lime; Workshop wagons; wagons dimensions; Repair signals; to repair the telegraph; cars, the van; milk; for live birds; temporarily meat; temporarily fruit; for mineral water; weight; cars, mobile workshops; wagons photos; for gardeners; to repair the telegraph; Repair signals; wagons dimensions.
For the first enterprise engaged in the period in car building, except for the Alexander factory should also include: Kovrovskiye workshops of the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod roads and shops Southwestern Railways, Machine-Building Plant and Williams Buhteeva in Moscow, began to build freight cars in 1865 (in 1866 the plant received an order for 1,900 freight cars); Engineering Works Bremm and Levestama in Moscow, received in 1866 an order for 1,400 freight cars; Plant brothers Struve, built in 1863 near Kolomna Kolomna Plant named later. The last three plants received from abroad, axles, wheels, tires and spring steel, whose production at Russian plants has not yet been established.
In addition to these three plants railcar was organized later by another the next ten plants:
- Factory Kuleshov in Moscow, built in 1869 -1870 years. 480 freight cars, but then stop railcar;
- Plant and Pay Lilpop in Warsaw, began to build wagons with 1870 .;
- Komissarovskoy Technical School in Moscow, which began with the 1870 build in their shops on 600 commodities and 100 passenger cars a year;
- Malcev plant in Raditse near Bryansk, began in 1870 to build freight cars with 500 cars per year and subsequently increase production to 1,500 cars;
- Plant Charlier and Zippe in Riga, began to build freight cars in 1870 with annual output of 650 units and develop their production to the point that in the following years this plant called Russian-Baltic became the largest Russian railcar plant;
- Sampsonevskom plant in St. Petersburg, to build up to 200 cars every year since 1871 .;
- Gloucester factory in Riga, which gave in 1871-1872. 378 cars;
- Strubinskogo plant in St. Petersburg, built in 1873 to 60 121 passenger and freight car;
- Sormovo factory near Nizhny Novgorod, began to car building from 1873 in the amount of 860 freight cars per year;
- Putilov factory in St. Petersburg, began to build wagons since 1874.
These car-building plant will so reduce import freight cars from abroad that in the five years 1875-1880 gg. he completely stopped. The exception is in 1877-1878., When in connection with the Russian-Turkish war took an additional import about 4,000 cars. Russian same plants during the 1875-1880 biennium. built more than 36,000 freight cars.
By the beginning of 1875 on the Russian railways were up to 50 different types of two-axle covered wagons and about 35 types of coal gondolas and platforms. These types differ from each other on the technical embodiment of the individual parts and size.
This diversity complicates the use of their cars not only in the scale of all the railways, but even on each road.
The first step towards bringing the covered goods wagons to uniformity was published in 1875 by order of the Ministry of Railways on the mandatory construction of new trade body biaxial cars with internal dimensions of the body, received the name of "normal-sized": length 6400 mm, width 2743 mm.
The establishment of "normal size" body was dictated by military considerations. Produced a common type of trade covered wagons with military equipment in case of mass transport troops. Such equipment is manufactured according to the same "size" are in stock at the warehouses of all roads and could be used only in covered wagons, a body whose length and width have the same "normal size". Subsequently, in 1878, was normalized width of the door boxcars 6 ft. (1 830 mm).
Establishment and further improvement of cars is inextricably linked with the development of railways in Russia. Introduced the world's first direct besperegruzochnoe message on domestic railways led to the normalization of the rolling stock. Were created by the normal types of covered wagons, platforms and other types of cars. Built tank wagons, isothermal and various special wagons. However, in the park of freight cars dominated universal indoor and platform.
The first design of freight cars of railways in Russia were rational for their time, some of them appeared earlier than in the US and other countries.
Since the second half of the 90s due to intensive expansion of domestic construction of railways, due to the rise in industrial production, significantly increased the demand for new freight cars, which in 1895-1905 gg. estimated at 15,000-20,000 units per year against 3,500 in the previous period (1880-1894 gg.). It became apparent that the existing fleet of freight cars (1880 110 000 in 1890 - 142 000) was clearly insufficient. So we decided to expand on the existing railcar factories and organize the construction of new cars on. So, in 1880, began production of cars at the Bryansk Engineering Plant. In 1896, 18 km from Moscow near the village of Big Mytischi started construction Mytischinskogo Carriage Works. The following year, in 1897 a small plant in St. Petersburg, manufacturing carriages, ammunition boxes, field kitchens and other property has been significantly expanded and transformed into Petersburg Carriage Works.
In 1896 Tver began to build the Upper Volga Wagon Works, which later became one of the main enterprises on production of first cargo, and then passenger cars.
The Southern Urals was built Ust-Katav Carriage Works, which began production of cars in 1900 In addition to indoor and platforms normal type are created four-axle gondola, including with a metal body, as well as passenger cars for the wide and narrow gauge.
In 1903 in the construction of covered wagons and platforms involved Toretskoy steel and machine-building plant, located in the Donets Basin in Druzhkivka station.
In 1910 the construction of freight cars was also organized at the Kharkov Locomotive Works, Nizhnedneprovskiy metallurgical and small factory Arthur Koppel. By this time all the cars built 19 plants: railcar - Russian-Baltic, Malcev, Chekhov, Upper Volga, Ust-Katav, St. Petersburg, Revel ("Engine"); parovozovagonostroitelnye - Bryansk, Kolomna, Putilov, Sormovskiy, Kharkov; mechanic - Warsaw (Lilpop, Pay), Riga ("Phoenix"), Kiev, Nikolaev shipbuilding, steel Toretskoy, Nizhnedneprovskiy Steel, Arthur Koppel. Leading place eight: Sormovskiy and Putilov, Bryansk and Kolomna, St. Petersburg and the Upper Volga, Chekhov and Riga plants.
All these companies are owned by private capital. State remained Alexander factory, which, along with the repair, and went on to build new cars. From 1848 to 1917 there were produced 4477 freight cars, of which the largest number (618) - in 1900. In Russia, most of freight cars was created in 1915 - 36 525. The power plants under consideration is not fully used, they could produce up to 60,000 freight cars a year. In 1917, the country had 569,000 freight cars.
The first passenger cars were built I, II, III classes, they differed from each other by internal hardware and trim. Spring suspension device provided the necessary smoothness. The first cars did not have the necessary facilities for passengers. However, in 1850, Alexander factory built two cars with improved design and comfort for passengers.
Since passenger cars was not enough, they have purchased in Western European countries. However, they turned out to be unsustainable for the conditions in Russia, and in 1868 -1884 years. needed to carry out their mess and create a domestic passenger car type. This type is characterized by the presence of the through passage inside the body, the device is closed vestibules at the ends of the car, well-insulated body, windows with double glazing.
Since 1863 passenger cars were equipped toilets and sinks, as well as dry heating furnaces. Kovrovskiye workshops for the first time in the world (in 1866) to create individual, and in 1877 water heating. Improved ventilation devices. Lanterns with candles since 1877 began to replace gas, and since 1887 - electric lighting.
The three-axle passenger car class "mixed" - 2nd / W th. Number of axes - 3, made at the Putilov factory, the road initial registration - Ryazan-Ural, year - about 1895, the number of beds - 20.
The cars of this type all classes built on the order of private roads in the 90s of the XIX century. These were the last three-axle wagons, build "custom" to standardize the passenger car fleet. Painted in dark yellow (gold), and green, respectively location places 2nd and 3rd class.
The three-axle passenger wagon Class 3. Made in the Russian-Baltic wagon factory, road initial registration - Moscow-Brest, year - about 1872.
This type of car is widespread in the 70-80-ies of the XIX century. Produced all classes, both open areas and closed platform. Some specimens were operated until the mid-1950s. Painted in green.
Improved construction of the bodies and bogies of passenger cars. In 1902, on the Central Asian road caboose was equipped with a device to cool the air, and in 1915, on the South-West road built diner with a ventilation system, heating and cooling. In 1906 were built double-decker passenger cars with a cart, which had longitudinally extending leaf springs. Such constructs were subsequently spread in Germany.
Passenger cars in small quantities available in the following plants Kolomna, Strubinchky, Sampsonevsky, Malcev, the Russo-Baltic, Sormovskiy, Lilpop and Rau, Putilov.
Many original designs of cars, parts and assemblies created Kovrovskaya workshops.
Achievement of the domestic car-building, particularly in the 1865-1880 years., Is: the introduction of water heating in soft cars and heating in harsh; device toilets in all cars and washrooms in most cars; installation on the roof of the car exhaust vents; introduction of double sunk windows with large all-glass and placing them between the benches; improvement of artificial lighting; the introduction of entrance doors, opens just inside the body, and internal sliding doors; lifting device backs of sofas to form beds; standardization of sizes interior layout cars; widespread use of triaxial designs cars; creation of special cars.
At the end of the XIX century in the factories of the country has increased significantly the construction of passenger cars. Three-axle wagons gave way to a more perfect biaxial and then a four cars.
Four-passenger car class 1 (with carts Fett triple hanging). Made at the Sormovo plant, roads initial registration - Southern, year -primerno 1913, the number of beds - 18.
Passenger cars were the last in this series, developed in Russia before the First World War. The length of the car body is increased to 20 m. Apply full iron frame. The cars of this type were built only 1st and 2nd grade - both separately and mixed (ie mixed). For the first time (since 1912) on these coaches began to install electric lighting (previously only be installed in cars salons). Subsequently, of them, the most modern and comfortable for the time, in 1931, was formed Express "Red Arrow" Leningrad and Moscow. All of his cars were blue because this color matched 1st class. Only after 30 years of operation, the legendary train was repainted red, reflecting its name.
Were created original designs of different types of cars:
- soft classes I and II with a variety of layout and equipment;
- four- and six-axle with metal polustenkami carrying the main load;
- Hard, including Class IV to significantly reduce the cost of travel through an increased passenger capacity;
- double-decker cars to significantly increase the number of seats per unit length of the car;
- postal, parcel, service and other special cars in various designs; cars, distinguishes the improved smoothness (with a cart system Fett, a triple hanging et al.);
- cars with air-conditioning systems.
Wagon-church. Made in the Putilov factory in 1896 Type carts - "Siberian", a single hanging.
This is what is written in the photo album "The Great Siberian Way" about this car: "The car-church built in the Putilov factory to celebrate the birth of Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna. ... The consecration of the church followed by July 1, 1896 in New Peterhof .... Wagon-church has its direct purpose to facilitate performance of religious duties to people living on the Siberian railway stations located far from the villages. "
First, the car turned on the West Siberian, and after the construction of permanent temples there had been referred to the Mid-Siberian railway. The photo was taken by American Frederick Furman in 1918 in Vladivostok. It is known for the construction of up to six mobile revolution churches. All were of various designs. This car was originally stained in a dark blue color. After 1913 the church had wagons white coloring.
Four-passenger wagon Class 2 (with triple bogies hanging). Made in the Putilov factory, year - about 1901, the number of beds - 32. Road initial registration - Chinese Eastern.
This type received from the experts called "car system Polonso" - by the name of the French engineer, designed for a special body. The lower part of the metal sklepyvalas so formed that rugged construction. In fact, it was the first in domestic practice the use of monocoque. In Russia such cars (all classes except the 4th) were built from 1896 to Vladikavkaz, the Chinese Eastern and St. Petersburg-Warsaw railway (for last-shortened). Nowhere else have not been spread because they were heavier and had greater axle loads. The thickness of the sheet metal underbody - 5 mm (small arms bullets of the time it did not break), in connection with which these representatives passenger Park better known as armored or "cars Vladikavkaz type" (named after the original order them road). Later, under some of these cars built for senior or wealthy individuals (coaches area with luxury finishes and amenities), to reduce the load on the axle on the rails (which grew out of the car to increase the length up to 24 m) rolls three-axle truck. These "aristocrats" also made history, becoming the personal cars of prominent military leaders and politicians.
The bulk of the cars "Polonso" has been written in the early 60-ies of XX century, but their design was so reliable that some cars parlors in the passenger survived the park until the end of the 1980s as an official in various ranks of heads of railways. Now they are presented as exhibits a number of railway museums CIS and Baltic countries.