History of Russian rail lines
Ural region is rightly called the birthplace of Russian railways. Back in 1834 Tagilskoye serfs EA and ME Cherepanov was invented and built by "steamer delizhanets" and cast iron road for him.
This invention was the impetus for the country's railway construction. It was only in the 70s of the XIX century., When the railroads have already appeared in the central and north-western Russia, was deployed railway construction in the Urals.
Road Cherepanovs 1836
The first draft of the Ural Railway appeared in 1861. It was designed by VK Rochet - Managing Nizhnetagilskye plants Demidov. The route was to pass through the Middle Urals and the Volga and Ob connect. However, industrialists and merchants center of the country, the Volga region and Siberia insisted on line project from Nizhny Novgorod via Kazan, Sarapul, Yekaterinburg and Tyumen. Another road project brings autumn 1868 Permian entrepreneur and parohodovladelets I. Lyubimov from Perm to Tobol, through Kungur, Yekaterinburg and Shadrinsk. Soon, the Ministry of Railways gives permission to survey this route. In the summer of 1869 at the invitation of Lyubimov railway engineer Sobolewski made a topographical survey area, and a professor of the University of Kazan NA Golovkin explored coal deposits of the Middle Urals. After that was drafted by which to this area has been added to mining and metallurgical branch of Yekaterinburg through Nizhni Tagil to Kushvinsky state-owned factories.
In February 1870 the Committee decided to accept the railways Ural Railway "absolutely necessary to include the number of roads samonuzhneyshih without defining its now final direction in order to check for conflicting testimony on this matter of private entrepreneurs and to explain on the basis of accurate data as favorable direction, and the starting and ending point of the road, to second place on the special committee of engineers and technicians of Railways and mining department. " In May 1870 a government commission composed of mining engineers and Gelmersen Meller and Railway Engineers headed by Sobolev and Colonel Zolotarev went to the Urals. Future road was to connect the Ural plants with coal and ore deposits and to export their products to the Kama. On this basis, the Commission chose the direction of Yekaterinburg along the Urals in the north to the Nizhny Tagil and Kushva, Kushva from west to Kamassian pier on the river Chusovaya and then north to Dobrianka wharf on the Kama River. From this line were to depart two branches: one - to Lunevskim Carboniferous kopyam, another - to Bilimbaevskomu plant Stroganoff subsequently Bilimbaevskaya branch was canceled.
In 1871-1872 Government surveys have been carried out, led by engineers Sobolev and Moeller. Construction of the road began with the preparatory work: land acquisition, demolition, deforestation, temporary roads, construction of the telegraph, barracks, and so on. D. Construction was done by the "Society of the mining railroad." It was headed by railway engineer Golubev, in some areas the work of engineers led Rippas, Basicò, Zhukov, Evreinov, Ostrovsky and others. The whole line was divided into three parts: the first - from Perm to Kamasin village, the second - from Kamasin to Kushva and third - from Kushva to Ekaterinburg. The first branch of the road passes through areas with lots of streams, rivers, ravines, so there were built wooden bridges and laid pipe. Turned out to be the most difficult portion of Kamasin to Kushva, the builders had to cut down forests to make notches in the rock, to build the mound. Works were supervised by engineer VA Rippas. Subsequently, in the St. Petersburg Institute of Railways was established an annual award in his name.
After finishing the main road, builders started to Lunevskoy branch. Steep hillsides and rocky ground complicates things considerably. On Lunevskoy branch was built one of the first in Europe tunnels length of 65 fathoms. In 1878 finished and opened to traffic trains main line of the road, and in September 1879 the construction was completed. The road was named the Ural mining and metallurgical and was the first highway built by Russian engineers and builders in areas with mountainous terrain.
The railway on the stretch-Arkhipovka Chusovskaya
The first manager of the road was appointed one of its builders - a talented engineer N. Ostrovsky. The road serving private and state-owned plants in Siberia and the Urals. After its entry into service the number of industrial enterprises began to increase. For example, in 1883 a merchant Lyubimov, together with the Belgian firm Solvay engineer in the upper reaches of the Kama chemical plant was built, which initiated the domestic soda industry. Two years later, near Perm built Glassworks Egoreva. Thanks to the railway line to expand markets for industrial raw materials, which has spread throughout the Urals and Western Siberia.
Railroad Urals continued to grow at the end of 1885 was built branch Yekaterinburg-Tyumen. In January 1888 this branch was merged with Gornozavodsk road in one line, which became known as the Ural Railway. Thus, the pools were connected Ob and Kama.
In 1896 completed construction of a branch of Yekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk, Ural road which connected with the Trans-Siberian Railway. At the end of the XIX century. Ural Railway, renamed Perm Tyumen, was built from Perm to Kotlas through Vyatka. At the beginning of 1900 the road was called Perm. Its length exceeds 2,100 kilometers.
The need to unite the largest Ural track the center of the country was evident, and in 1906 with state funds built Broad line of Vyatka through Bui, Galich, Vologda, Cherepovets, Tikhvin station Obuhovo. Gornozavodsky section of the road due to its low-bandwidth became an obstacle in the way of cargo flows. Rebuild it because of the heavy profile was not possible, so it was decided to lay a new line through the Urals. In 1902-1904 gg. surveys were carried out, determine the route and drafted the line. In 1909, the route Perm-Kungur-Yekaterinburg was commissioned. The new line was 117 miles shorter than the former, in addition, it has been equipped with additional travels.
In 1913 the track was built Tyumen-Omsk, allowed to enter the northern highway, bypassing the congested Samara-Zlatoustinskiy line. In the same year, a joint stock company of the West-Ural Railway began construction of the line from Lysva to Berdyausha. Since the land was rich in spurs and slope, significantly complicated the work of the builders. Tunnel was built through Makushinsky Cape, built bridges, stone pipes and numerous mounds. Despite all the difficulties, October 16, 1916 the road was open. At the same time it was built and put into operation in the North-East road from Shartash to Tavda that served metallurgical plants in the Urals.
In September 1919 to Perm line were joined West Ural, Theological, North-Eastern part of the Ural and Omsk. The length of the road on June 1, 1920 amounted to 3891 miles.
In 1919 the People's Commissariat of Railways has decided to transfer control from Perm to Ekaterinburg. During the years of the Civil War railroad was caused huge damage: destroyed 226 bridges, 70 station buildings, incapacitated rolling stock. In the 20-ies. priority was to restore the road. In 1930 Kotlas line Perm Railway became part of North Road. At the same time Perm road sections were transferred to Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Chelyabinsk-Poletaeva Trinity-Kustanai and finish building the line Troitsk-Orsk and Kartaly-magnetic.
Since the 30s the road more than once has been reorganized. In 1934 Perm railway unbundled to Perm (Sverdlovsk) and South Urals (Chelyabinsk). In 1936 Perm road renamed the railway them. LM Kaganovich. In 1939, from the railway them. LM Kaganovich left the road Perm (Perm). In 1943, the road to them. LM Kaganovich renamed Sverdlovsk. In 1953, Perm and Sverdlovsk Railways combined with the management of the Sverdlovsk in Sverdlovsk.
In 1998 the line celebrated its 120th anniversary. Today in the Sverdlovsk railway adjoins an extensive network of access roads for industrial vehicles serving the mining, coal, metallurgy, peat, wood industry, machine building industry and building materials.