History of Russian rail lines
Thanks to the world-famous fair, Nizhny Novgorod became "Russia's pocket."
Every year here Merchants from all over the world. The writer Pushkin wrote in 1836: "The Road (iron) from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod would still need a way from Moscow to St. Petersburg - and my opinion would be: with her and start."
This idea in 1836 supported MS Volkov - one of the most progressive leaders of that time - in an article about the benefits of railways in Russia.
May 10, 1847 imperial decree was approved by the construction of a road from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod. But it took more than 10 years before construction began. In the first half of May 1858 were organized work on the route Moscow - Vladimir. At the station, Vladimir - Nizhny Novgorod construction started only in the spring of 1859.
The first projects for the construction of the Nizhny Novgorod railway belong to the 30s of the XIX century. However, only 10 May 1847 imperial decree was approved by the construction of a road from Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod. It took another 10 years before construction began on the highway.
In the first half of May 1858 were organized work on the route Moscow - Vladimir. At the station, Vladimir - Nizhny Novgorod construction started only in the spring of 1859 August 1, 1862 was open to traffic throughout the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod Railway. But this great day was marred by misfortune: under a carpet train crashed. And in 1867 the foundations of a bridge built over the river. Klyaz'ma not stand the pressure of water at high water. The main reason for what happened was that in the construction of artificial structures and the design subgrade foreign engineers did not consider climatic features of Russia. Rails and metal parts of bridges, as well as all the rolling stock for the Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod railway was ordered abroad. Only in 1877 on the initiative of the road manager IF Rerberg near Nizhny Novgorod opened its first factory in Russia impregnated sleepers. After a few years, the central mechanical workshop in Kovrov began to produce their own cars; there were organized and repair shops.
In 1856, the company was founded the Moscow-Saratov railway. Soon it with the support of Alexander II, received a concession for 80 years. In 1863 the company changed its obligations and became known as the Society of the Moscow-Ryazan railway.
Streak for the laying of the roadway and structures was Carl F. Von Meck. After working for a long time civil engineer, K. von Meck suddenly leaves the public service and dedicate themselves entrepreneurship. Start a new career von Meck associated with the construction of the Moscow - Kolomna, where he showed his organizational talents, knowledge and energy. Construction of the line length of 117 kilometers began June 11, 1860 and proceeded at an accelerated pace. Rails and mounting them delivered by sea to Kronstadt, and from there on convoys bringing up the builders. About 4 thousand wage workers were employed in the construction of the road. July 20, 1862 all works were completed and the road is officially open to the constant movement of the two passenger and freight trains.
In the spring of 1863, construction began on the site of Kolomna to Ryazan, stretching for 80 miles. Concession received by the Company of the Moscow-Ryazan railway, which was headed by PG Derviz background, a former official of the Committee of railways. Contractor society became KF von Meck.
Particular difficulties were related to the bridge over the river. Oka. By the summer of 1864 approaches to it have been completed. First built a temporary bridge, and August 27, 1864 began the movement of trains from Kolomna to Ryazan. February 20, 1865 a major bridge was built. He became the first in Russia combined bridge for railway and cartage. Construction was led by a military engineer AE Struve. For the manufacture of structures of spans of Struve created workshops, which in 1872 were converted into machine-building plant.
Since traffic is increasing every year, in 1870 was built the second path. In the same year, and the company has built Egorievskay Zaraisky branches. All along the line comes into operation a new station. By 1898 already took passengers sorting, Perov, Sheremetyevo (now Ivy) Veshnyaki, Koshino, Podosinki (now Ukhtomskaya) Lyubertsy, Tomilino Malahovka, specific, bulls, Elias, Ramenskoye.
In 1890 as a result of negotiations with the government of society has committed itself to the construction of the highway Moscow - Kazan, as well as branches from Kolomna to the lake on the left bank of the Oka. Now it became known as the Society of Moscow-Kazan Railway. Already in September 1893 opened to traffic on Ozerskaya line and the area from Ryazan to Sasovo, from June 15, 1894 - to Kazan, and in September of the same year - Simonovskaya branch. Upon completion of construction was a question about the connection with the road Syzran-Vyazma line, as well as the construction of a railroad from Penza to Balashov. The new road gave access to the south, connecting the central parts of the country with Kazan, Simbirsk, and Penza province, rich woods.
In 1891 the chairman of the Moscow-Kazan Railway appointed Nikolai Karlovich von Meck, the son of KF von Meck. He became a true successor of his father. Without special engineering education, NK von Meck was able in practice to master all the subtleties of the railways. In the first decade of his reign length of lines of the Moscow-Kazan Railway increased by 9 times. Created a new railway network in the Volga region: Ryazan - Kazan, Ruzaevka - Penza - Syzran - Hinds, Inza - Simbirsk Timiryazevo - Nizhny Novgorod. Von Meck enjoyed the support and patronage of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna (sister of the Empress), spoke of him as "an honest servant of the King and Fatherland."
In 1897 after the commissioning of the Moscow-Kazan road construction project came from the line through the city of Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas Lukoyanov to Romodanovo. The line was to go through the Nizhny Novgorod and Arzamas and Lukoyanovskaya counties. Construction of the line began in April 1900 direct the operation at the site Arzamas-Romodanovo engineer GM Buganov. But construction was slow, deadlines railroad tracks repeatedly frustrated. At the end of December 1901 was open freight and passenger traffic on the line, but the train speed does not exceed 10 miles per hour.
In 1902 the Society of the Moscow-Kazan railway line had submitted a draft of Lyuberets through Moore, Sergach to Shihranov. Line presupposed bridge across the Volga length 602 miles. When the road project was discussed in the government, the Minister of Finance Witte said: "The railway is unprofitable as a separate entity, is part of a very advantageous from the point of view of the general state of the economy due to the impact that it has on the country's productive forces, and after them the revenues of the treasury" . In 1903, the road project was finally approved, but with the beginning of Russian-Japanese War, the construction was suspended. Only in April 1910 began construction of the first segment of the road - line Lyubertsy-Arzamas. Supervised the construction engineer AA Frolovskiy. Designed by renowned bridge builder Professor NA Belelyubsky about Kazan was built a bridge across the river. Volga. Already in December 1911 to open a temporary movement in the area Lyubertsy-Moore, and on October 15, 1912 trains could go down the line from station to station Lyubertsy Arzamas.
In 1907 the question arose of having to connect Nizhny Novgorod with the Northern Railway. In 1911, the Moscow-Kazan Company started construction of a road line Nizhny Novgorod-Kotel'nich with a branch to the city Yaransk. Involves the construction of bridges across the Volga and the Oka. At the same time society has committed itself to the construction of highway Kazan-Ekaterinburg. Construction is already passing slowly, was interrupted by the revolution. In 1918 came into operation line Arzamas - Canas, provide the shortest link between Moscow and Kazan, and the line Agryz - Izhevsk - Votkinsk.
Second exit from the European part of the country to the Urals and further to Siberia given stretch of road Kazan - Agryz - Sverdlovsk, put into operation in 1924. In 1927, Moscow was one more way in the Southern Urals and Mari El through Nizhny Novgorod - Kirov - Perm to Yoshkar-Ola. In 1940 finished laying the Yar - phosphate and lines to the capital of Chuvashia Cheboksary. In 1945, commissioned plot Izhevsk linking the station to play, and in 1947 - a segment of Pibanshura before the game, resulting in connected lines: Kazan - Sverdlovsk and Kirov - Perm - Sverdlovsk.
In 1936 in accordance with the order of the People's Commissariat of Railways from the Moscow-Kursk railway was isolated Gorky Railway, and from the Moscow-Kazan - Kazan railway.
In 1961 the merger of Gorky and Kazan highways arose Gorky Railway.