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The history of railways, XX century

The history of railways, XX century

1932 - An experimental ring at the station. Shcherbinka near Moscow

1932 - the beginning of construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline

The idea of ​​building the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) dates back to the late XIX - early XX century, and due to the military and political reasons. Academic and pseudo-scientific arguments for the development of Siberia and the Far East spurred the disappointing outcome of the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905., Which clearly showed the urgent need to build a second rokadnoy railway in the east, back-Trans-Siberian railway.

According to the original plan of the Great Siberian Route (future BAM) was run from Ufa on the shortest distance to the eastern sea coast through the northern tip of Lake Baikal. The project was discussed in Russian society is still technically in 1888. In discussions 1904-1908. one of the active supporters of the railway arrangement of this area of ​​the country were American companies offering primarily to build the Siberian-Alaskan highway with access to American territory through Cape Dezhnev and Bering Strait.

In Soviet times, research on the development of the railway network in the east of the country have resumed in the late 1920s. - Early 30-ies. It was then that the road from Taishet to the east for the first time got its present name - the Baikal-Amur Mainline. Begins the road from the station offered Urusha (about the middle of this BAM near Skovorodina), and the final destination planned to make Komsomolsk-on-Amur, who was then the village of Perm.

Laying tracks BAM performed the most advanced at that time way - with the help of aerial photography on the first major domestic research ANT-7. One of the enthusiasts of the new method was future Soviet science fiction writer Ivan Efremov.

In 1932, the People's Commissars adopted a decree "On the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline", which approved the plan for the construction of BAM. People's Commissariat of Railways (People's Commissariat) were instructed to provide "immediate attack to all preparatory works for the construction of BAM." Construction planned to be completed in 3 years: through traffic across the highway mode operating manual should have been opened by the end of 1935

Bamlag

At an early stage of construction, it became clear that its terms will not be able to withstand. The main problem was the lack of manpower: the officially established contingent working at a construction site in the 25-26 thousand. Man to begin construction in 1932, has managed to attract only 2.5 thousand. People. Given the difficulties with the delivery of construction materials and equipment, to the end of 1932, the project was on the verge of collapse.

As was the case during the impact of industrialization, to help researchers enthusiasts sent "enemies of the people": to work on the construction of future highway hooked prisoners. In October 1932 construction transferred from the People's Commissariat of the OGPU, which at this point in record time, completing the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal.

In 1932 was organized by the Baikal-Amur forced labor camp (Bamlag). Management Bamlag located in Free (Amur region). Bamlag was appointed head of the infamous "drummer and activist" of his case naphthalene Frankel previously supervised the construction of the White Sea Canal.

Initially, the prisoners had to pave the road Urusha - cabin Tynda - village Perm-on-Amur (December 10, 1932 converted to Komsomolsk-on-Amur) length of about 2000 km. Allotted for the construction of 3.5 years.

It should be noted that at this stage in the construction of highways participated: large Russian philosopher-theologian Paul Florensky (later was transferred, died in Solovki), the future marshal and commander of the Victory Parade 1945 Konstantin Rokossovsky. 10 years there had writer Anastasia (sister of the great Russian poet), the same period worked future Soviet writer Yuri Dombrowski.

Although the issue of the labor force has been removed, the original plans for 1934 still had to change: aerial photography territory of the future route was not enough for a route. In addition, a significant part of the workforce to time threw the construction of the second track Trans-Siberian Railway, which had been laid by 1938 construction of a new highway were only in the connecting section of the Trans-Siberian BAM station to Tynda, which is open very late - in October 1937 city

In 1937 he was made second decision on the construction of BAM, which approved the current route of the pipeline from Taishet via Ust-Kut, Nizhneangarsk, Tynda, Urga, Komsomolsk-on-Amur, with access to the port of Sovetskaya Gavan. BAM for the design, according to this decree, created a special design institutes "Bamtransproekt" (in 1939 renamed "Bamproekt").

In 1937, work began on the construction of the second connecting portion with the Trans-Siberian Railway - Lime line - Urgal. The introduction of a new term line-up was scheduled for 1945

Total during the existence Bamlag was commissioned a number of sections with a total length of about 400 km.

BAM Construction during WWII

The Great Patriotic War forced to stop work on the construction of the highway. Moreover, the materials for the construction of BAM was used as a "hot" backup. Rails and railway equipment went to the restoration of damaged areas of the railways in the southern parts of the front - for the construction of the famous rokadnoy supply road along the eastern bank of the Volga (Saratov Trans-Volga belt road - Stalingrad) and the construction of railroads transport corridor for organizing the supply of allies under Lend-Lease through Iran .

By 1942 the railway communication on the already constructed parts of BAM was discontinued. However, in 1943 the State Committee of Defense of the USSR found it possible to start accelerated construction of the railway Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Sovetskaya Gavan (440 km). With the help of the US supply of railway equipment under Lend-Lease in July 1945, the line was put into operation.

BAM in the postwar years

Construction continued after the war. Resumed work on the western section of BAM: in 1947 the line was opened Taishet - Bratsk, and in 1951 it was brought to the station Lena (Ust-Kut), forming the western section of the current track. However, full commissioning of the site took place only in 1958. The lines were necessary for the operation of large construction projects - Ust-Ilim hydroelectric station, Bratsk and Ust-Ilim.

Was restored branch Lime - Urga, linking Bureinsky coal basin with Khabarovsk and other areas of the Far East. Line of Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Sovetskaya Gavan has become a major transport hub bearing through which to communicate with Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Kolyma and Chukotka.

In 1953, after the death of IV Stalin's work on the BAM lull.

At the end of the 1950s. BAM on the track was recorded high seismic activity: in the area of ​​highway was once 7 earthquakes from 7 to 10. The most significant of them - Muya 1957 earthquake of magnitude 7.6 that occurred on the northern mountain range Udokan and cause the formation of cracks and fault length of about 300 km, the shift of riverbeds, the collapse of the mountain slopes.

In 1961, the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the USSR began seismological studies on the highway BAM, which took several years.

Until the end of 1960. BAM lasted only minor work - were paved embankment and ripped up the rocks to the west of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. During 1950-60-ies. built portion of the main highways and trunk Lime - Urgal used as a logging road. Large-scale construction on the BAM was curtailed until the mid-1970s.

In 1967 issued a decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on the resumption of development works at BAM, which were entrusted to institutions "Mosgiprotrans", "Lengiprotrans" and "Sibgiprotrans." Design work, in fact, had to be repeated - both because of the refinement compared with the 1930s years. natural conditions on the route runs (including high seismic risk) and due to changes in technical environments route, which instead of the previously planned locomotive traction now expected to organize a movement to diesel and electric traction.

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