The history of railways, XX century
1958 - Government adopted a resolution "On the general plan of electrification of railways"
This decision was of historic importance for the development and reconstruction of railway transport. According to him for 15 years, planned to electrify the nine most important areas of the network and the number of sites.
In 1958, the Soviet Union came in first place in the world for the length of electrified lines. The largest increase was achieved in 1965, when it was electrified in 2268 km, with electric traction was carried out about 45% of freight railways.
In the 1958-65 biennium. length of electrified railway lines increased from 9.5 to 24.9 thousand. km. Electric traction have been translated major route Moscow - Irkutsk (over 5 thousand. Km) and Moscow - Gorky - Sverdlovsk (about 2 thousand. Km), as well as suburban areas of large cities and industrial centers.
From 1956 to 1991. the USSR was transferred to electric traction of about 50 thousand. km of major highways and entire areas.
The results of the introduction of electric traction on the railways:
- increase capacity and carrying capacity on a single-track lines is 1.5-2 times on double track - 2-2.5 times;
- growth of labor productivity by 1.5 times (in suburban - more than 2 times);
- reduction in the cost of transportation by 1.5-2 times.
In the 20 years since the adoption of the resolution "On the general plan of electrification of railways", the capital cost of the introduction of electric traction amounted to about 7 billion rubles, and the resulting savings in operating funds - 20-22 billion rubles. This means that capital investments have paid off three times.
Translation to electric traction railway lines allowed to increase weight norms trains precinct speed, average daily mileage of locomotives. Increased stability of operation, particularly in areas with harsh climatic conditions. Among the important advantages of the electric drive train is an environmental factor.
Today, electric locomotives and EMUs are the main type of traction on Russian railways. The country still ranks first in the world in terms of network length: 42 thousand electrified. Km of railway lines. Although this is less than half of all Russian network, but in these areas is carried out 82.3% of all traffic.