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History

History

First Steps

It marked the beginning of the road construction in the Russian railway network.Ended in October 1837. Thirtieth day 12 hours 30 minutes twice hit the station bell, drawling whistle of a steam locomotive "Prompt", and the first train went by rail public Saint Petersburg - Tsarskoye Selo.

However, in fairness, we note that the first steam railway in Russia appeared in 1834. It was built fortress-yourselfers nuggets Yefim Cherepanov and his son Myron on Urals Nizhny Tagil Metallurgical Plant. They were built and two locomotives for the road. And even earlier, November 20, 1809, came the king's manifesto, which said: "The spread of agriculture and industry, a growing population of the capital and the movement of domestic and foreign trade has already surpass the previous best of Railways".

This gave rise to new structures. Instead, the Department of Communications and water Expeditions dispensation roads were established General Directorate of Water and Land lines of communication, housing and the Institute of Railway Engineers, which is located in the former Yusupov Palace. Body entrusted the construction and operation of all means of communication, and the institute - training needed for this purpose specialists. Founder and first director of the institute was the famous Spanish scientist, engineer and builder of Agustín de Betancourt.

The creators of the first steam locomotive, father and son CherepanovThe creators of the first steam locomotive, father and son CherepanovRanked Among the graduates of the institute were the future prominent engineers and scientists in the field of construction and operation of railways: MS Volkov, SV Kerbedz, NO Kraft, PP Melnikov, DI Zhuravskiy and many others. Their diligence and perseverance railway track reached by Russian expanses. Day 1 February 1842 was marked by an important event. Emperor Nicholas 1 on the report of PP Melnikov and NO Kraft has signed a decree on the construction of the highest railway St. Petersburg - Moskva.A start work on August 1st. Construction of the road was divided into two management: North led by Melnikov and South, led by Kraft. They have attached 27 young engineers - graduates of the Institute of Railway Engineers.

Yusupov Palace, it housed the Institute of Railway EngineersThe road was built on sound engineering parameters, in addition to providing economic feasibility bandwidth needs with the perspective. Were chosen the best slopes, curve radii and other characteristics. Roadbed was erected just below the two paths. Were first laid shirokopodoshvennye iron rails. At the insistence of the Melnikov track width was set at 5 feet or 1524 millimeters. It has become the standard for all roads in Russia.

Builders to overcome water obstacles had to build 8 large and 182 small and medium mostov.Na road were built 34 stations. Built two major railway stations in Moscow and St. Petersburg by the famous architect KA Tone. They are still pleasing to the eye perfection of its forms. The first in November 1851 the biggest longest double-track railway was opened, and on it from St. Petersburg to Moscow at 11 hours and 15 minutes off the train. In a way it was 21 hours 45 minutes and arrived in Moscow the next day at 9am.

The first Russian line, which is today part of the October Railway, began to work. It went on the train, driven locomotives built at the Alexander factory Petersburg. Dimensions traffic grew rapidly. Already in 1852, the road has transported 719,000 passengers and 164,000 tons of cargo. Distance from St. Petersburg to Moscow - 650 kilometers - a fast train to overcome in 12 hours.

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